evidences of when
Investigating ancient history of Egypt, we will find very interesting facts. Since XVIII up to XVI century BC there a mixed ethnic group get strengthen in northeast region of Nile delta and later it became a greatest power in Egypt. The group received the name Hyksos (Egypt. heka khasewet; Greek Ὑκσώς). Many historians agree, that Jewish people were in Egyptian slavery during Hyksos government.
historians depicting Hyksos like conquerors, others think they were Jacob’s
sons who came in Egypt in the time of the great famine. Let see who is right :
1. It is widely accepted
that Hyksos were the mixed people, mostly - Semitic people of western Asia.
- From the Bible we
know, that sons of Israel came in Egypt and mixed up with Egyptians. The Jews
are Semitic people of
2. According to historical
documents there was a contemptuous attitude of Pharaohs of the south toward to
Hyksos as to «a humiliating stain upon the holy land
of Egypt» (from the letter of Pharaoh Kamose).
- From Genesis (43:32; 46:34) we know about the contemptuous attitude of the Egyptians toward to the Jews.
The historians are puzzled, how that happened that Hyksos took under control all
Egypt. Many believe, that Hyksos had a some weapon
unknown in Egypt, and with it
they have achieved submission of all country.
-Bible says Jacob’s family were peaceful people.
It is interesting also to note, that Hyksos had as an official language not a
some Asian language, but Egyptian one. « The Hyksos had assimilated into
Egyptian society, adding to and adapting to the ancient culture of Egypt.
Instead of restricting and impeding the freedom of the Egyptian people, the
Hyksos added to it by contributing cultural diversity and new innovations, and
creating a wealth of prosperity. The Hyksos set the foundation for foreign relations and an economy based largely on trade. They showed a deep respect for
the Egyptian culture by first adapting to it then preserving it with the
restoration of its artistic beauty….”
It is logical to assume, that, if the Hyksos would be the conquerors, they would introduce their own language and culture, instead of adapting to the Egyptians. Therefore facts obviously speak, the Hyksos (Jews) were in submission of the Egyptian pharaohs, and naming both of these groups of people by one name "Hyksos", the historians wrongly come to conclusion, that all the Hyksos had a some common goal.
think, the Hyksos achieved the power by using some artful diplomatic act. Others consider the Hyksos took the power over Egypt
when all the country was in some distress. And third point of view, perhaps, is
most correct, because it does not expose the Hyksos as conquers they never were.
Bible tells, that within 7 hungry years Joseph made slaves out of all Egypt. «And
Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh… And as for the people, he
removed them to cities and practically made slaves of them, from one end of the
borders of Egypt to the other » (Gen. 47:20,21).
5. Analyzing contents of tombs of Egyptian pharaohs of the XIII dynasty, Dr.Bruce Williams ( “Archaeology and Historical Problems of the Second Intermediate Period. Chicago, 1975, р.1227, http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/DEPT/RA/BBW/BBWIntro.html )…. noticed, that from the middle of the XIII dynasty tombs were apparently more poor. An amount of silver was much less than that tombs had before. The researcher concluded, the changes in tomb decorations were associated with some serious changes in political and social structures of Egypt, and the changes had taken place not in the end of the XIII dynasty, as many consider, but in middle of the XIII dynasty.
- The Bible tells, that it was Joseph who bought all silver in Egypt in change for bread (Gen. 47:14).
the short time by the
end of the XIII
dynasty (supposedly XIII dynasty ruled from 1803
to 1649 BC)
the Hyksos became
- From the Bible we
know the Jewish people multiplied and became the numerous nation incredibly
quickly (Ex. 1:7-12).
Hyksos had captured and
about 1720 BC had fortified city of Avaris, which became a residence of Hyksos pharaohs. Later Avaris was renamed to
that means: «the property of Raamses» (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avaris
- The Bible tells the Jews had built two supply cities in Egypt: Pithom and Raamses (Ex. 1:11). On the first sight, Pi-Ramses is not the same as Pithom and Raamses. However there are reasons to assume, that they were the two cities-districts in the one independent mega-city Avaris (Pi-Ramses). Many historians believe that from 1670 BC Avaris was the largest city in the world, therefore it certainly could have two urban areas. Supply cities usually were fortresses, and the city of Avaris was a very strong fortress.
Some historians, who
believe the city of Ramses in the Bible was named in honor of Raamses II and
Exodus took place in his government, move the Exodus from Egypt almost for 300
years ahead. However Bible tells about land of Ramses even before the Jews
entered Egypt (Gen. 47:11,comp.with Ex.1:11;12:37)! Besides, there are no
archeological, nor textual evidences confirming that during Raamses’
government the plagues described in “Exodus”had place.
On the other hand,
we have two very intriguing papyruses: the
papyrus of Ipuwer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipuwer_Papyrus
The historians remark, that
many Hyksos had no Egyptian, but Canaanite
names. So, among names of pharaohs of the XV dynasty of Hyksos there is
name «Mer-woser-ra Yaqob-her». As both names were written down together on
one scarab, it can mean only that these Prenomen and Nomen belonged to a one person.
Many historians are convinced
that Hyksos throne not always was hereditary, but sometimes was elective.
However, most likely, as Joseph became the pharaoh’s chief adviser and received other name, so and other Jews during the time in Egypt could achieve similar honors, and could be pharaoh’s general managers, instead of pharaohs
After the XII
prospered dynasty, the XIII dynasty could not
successfully manage the huge land of Egypt and gradually was broken up on couple
families, the strongest of which later (during government of the XVII dynasty) became the family that ruled the south of Egypt. The Hyksos
(Jews) did not appear in Egypt suddenly (majority of the historians agree on
it), they came to imperial family of northeast of Egypt, and, approximately in
100 years later became the majority of the population of that territory.
Jacob came in Egypt
1763 BC. 1763BC – is the middle of the XIII dynasty. "The Hyksos
were Asiatics who filtered into the eastern Egyptian Delta around the middle of
the Thirteenth Dynasty taking advantage of a period of internal Egyptian
The wall painting in the tomb of Khnumhotep II the official under pharaoh Senusret II depicts Semitic peoples entering Egypt. Supposedly Khnumhotep II died at c 1783 BC. According to our research Jacob had entered Egypt at 1763. There are only 2 suggestions: or Khnumhotep II died 20 years later, or this panting had appear in his tomb 20 years after his death.
In 100 years, i.e. by the end of the XIII dynasty a number of Jacob’s descendants increased to the unbelievable quantity. Pharaohs who managed them, had concentrated a huge power in their hands due to the wise strategy of Joseph and large number of the people living on that territory, belonged to them. For that reason, despite of the contemptuous attitude of other imperial families toward to Hyksos, they were not attacked for more than 200 years.
says, the first, who decided attack them, was pharaoh of a southern Egypt Seqenenra Tao II, who for that reason
received nickname "the brave". He died in fight with Hyksos about
BC. After him his son Kamose
ruled for 3 years, he also successfully attacked Hyksos. His 3-year's governing
had finished the XVII dynasty. After
ruled. He had put
Thus, in 1551 BC Jews left Egypt. The given circumstance allowed Seqenenra Tao II to be brave and attack their enslavers who more than 200 years collected tribute from all Egypt, and who (Egyptians) in that time were in a serious distress after the exodus of huge amount of the people (Jews) and after 10 plaques. Later his son had continued successful companies against left Hyksos.
Therefore, we have more than enough reasons to consider the time of Hyksos kingdom as time the Jews were in Egypt, which lasted for 215 Jewish, or 212 solar years, from 1763 BC to the end of the XVI dynasty (1551 BC), when Jews left Egypt.
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