Page 4                         

Ellen White - prophet?   

Time in prophecies 

Parallelism in prophecies

Earth after Second coming 

1260 days of the little horn  

Has GOD Left Israel Forever?  

Prophecy about the tree 

70-weeks prophecy.
Starting point

The prophecy itself 

Prophecy about 2300 days 

Opening of the Seals 

The image, beasts of Daniel and "Revelation" 

Beasts of "Revelation"

Whore of Babylon

Trumpets of “Revelation”  

The 7-th trumpet


Two prophets 

After the last battle

New or Restored Jerusalem?

Second Resurrection

New Jerusalem on the old planet?

After the 6-th bowl of wrath

The Judgment  

Some Adventists mistakes 

Time frame of the last days


Is it important to know?

Who was Jesus before He came first time?  

How conflict in heaven had began? 

Holy Feasts 

Why Sacrifices?  

The Tabernacle 

Meaning of Sacrifices

Day of Atonement



Seal of God and Mark of the Beast

The Book of Life

Time in Egypt

Time from Exodus to Solomon   
Application of Jephthan 

When did Exodus take place?

When will Jesus return?

What happens when we die?

God's Plan

To Adventists: Food for Thoughts 

Aliens  vs. demons 




4. The Prophecy about 1260 days of the power of the little horn

To Daniel the prophet the vision was given about 4 big beasts coming out of the sea (ch.7). These 4 beasts represented 4 empires, which should rise to power. The first beast like a lion represented the Babylonian empire, in which time Daniel lived. The next two beasts represented Media-Persian and Greek kingdoms.  The fourth beast - Rome - was the most terrible and it had 10 horns. 10 horns – are 10 kings, the rulers of the 10 provinces Roman empire was divided into. Daniel saw, how from the midst of these horns the little horn came up. The horn had eyes of a man and mouth speaking blasphemy, it had a power to oppress the saints. In the little horn most Christian churches today recognize Vatican. Before we will go any further lets at first see what is the meaning of a horn in a prophecy.       

                               A horn in a prophecy.

 A horn in a prophecy symbolizes a some person. As we will see later, in the prophecy about 2300 days it represents Alexander the Great and his 4 generals. The little horn has eyes and mouth, it acting against the saints, and even it symbolizes the system- papacy, it still represents a one person at time – a pop.  

Adventists do not have an order in their explanations on this subject: they agree that in 2300 days prophecy a horn represents a person, however they teach that 10 horns of the awful beast –Roman empire- are 10 tribes the empire was divided into. We need to understand what it really means, because we will need it further. So, lets see is Adventists point about 10 horns as 10 tribes the right one?

 Adventists teach: 10 German tribes divided Roman empire:
Saxons became English men.
2. Franks - French.
3. Alamanni - German.
4. Visigoths- Spanish.
5. Suevi- Portuguese.
6. Lombards- Italian.
7. Burgundians- Swiss.

8. Heruli, 9. Vandals and 10. Ostrogoths – disappeared after 538 AD, when papacy had emerged (as we will see in this chapter, papacy appeared not in 538, but in 606AD).

 So the prophecy tells, that all 10 horns were until the little horn appeared, and after the little horn had appeared 3 horns were plucked out. And after they disappeared the little horn got eyes and mouth speaking blasphemy. However Vandals disappeared in 533AD, before the apparition of the horn . Heruly were not plucked out by roots. There was no pressure on them. They were just mixed with Romans, were christianized and Romanized, and it’s not known when they finally disappeared. Ostrogoths disappeared in 553, however papacy (the little horn) didn’t have an independency (eyes and mouth) at that time.

 Another problem is that: there were more than the listed 10 tribes at that time, besides them these are: Gepids (disappeared in 567), Rugians (in 554), Basques (inhabited Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France), Viennensis (today France), Gauls (France), Bavarians (south Germany)…

So 10 horns in this prophecy can not represent 10 nations. However they are represent 10 persons.  

Lets make a little excursion in Roman history.

In 395 AD  - Roman emperor Theodosius I  died and the empire was divided between his too sons: Honorius got the West (in 402 he made Ravenna the capital of the West instead of Rome), Arcadius  - East (Byzantium - Constantinople). At that time the western empire had many interventions from different Germanic tribes.

In 410 Rome was occupied by Visigoths. That was the first time since 390 BC that Rome had been sacked. The West sank into anarchy. In this general disintegration the bishops of Rome, greatly increased their power and prestige, thus restoring to Rome in the religious field the importance it had lost in the political.  Thus by the efforts of Roman bishop Leo I (St. Leo the Great) Atilla, king of the Huns (445–53), was kept from sacking Rome.

 In 455 Vandals took Rome. In 475 Huns drove western Emperor Julius Nepos out of Ravenna and proclaimed their king - Romulus Augustus as emperor.

In 476, Heruli sacked Rome, deposed Romulus Augustus and erected their ruler - Odoacer. At that time Western Roman empire finished: after 476 rulers of the western land were foreigners. Odoacer made pacts with the Franks and Visigoths against the Burgundians, Alamanni, and Saxons, his kingdom expanded, his popularity among the Italic people grew, that started to worry Eastern Emperor Zeno, who increasingly saw Odoacer as a rival. In 488 he asked Ostrogoths recover Italy from Odoacer.

 By 493 Ravenna was taken by Ostrogoths. Later Ostrogothic power was fully established over Italy, Sicily and Dalmatia. On other hand there was no imperial  organized power on those lands, emperor and his army were far away, in Constantinople. People didn’t have a protection from foreign tyrants. The only imperial power there was the Church, which by bribery, diplomacy, threats and promises of a divine help could achieve some freedoms from Ostrogoths for roman people. In 537 Ostrogoths besieged Rome. In 538 Justinian’s general Belisarius freed Rome. In 546, the Ostrogoths under Totila recaptured and sacked the city of Rome. The Byzantine general Belisarius recaptured Rome but the Ostrogoths took it again in 549.   Only with death of Totila in 552 the long struggle between Byzantium and the Ostrogothic Kingdom in Italy was finished, and Rome was freed from  the Ostrogoths for good.

In 568 Lombards captured most of Italy: all north, and regions of Benevento,  Spoleto , Tuscany, a bit later – Lucania, and thus effectively restricted imperial authority in the West: the interior was under their power, and the coast remained to the imperial officers.

Eastern emperor Maurice I (582 - 602) get worried and for control of the West the imperial exarchate in Ravenna was organized, where his representative should have executive power of the emperor and be in connection with him all the time. 

The Exarchate included: 
the center in Ravenna with all surrounding territories, belonged to empire; 
and 9 regions, the western part of empire, which still remained under emperor jurisdiction,  was divided into. The regions called
duchies and every duchy had its governor –  a duke. There were:
2)Duchy of Istria,
3)Duchy of Venetia (667),
4)Duchy of Ferrara,
5)Duchy of Pentapolis (Rimini, Pesaro, Fano, Sinigaglia and Ancona),
6)Duchy of Perugia (or Perusia – between Duchy of Rome and Pentapolis),
7)Duchy of Rome,
8)Duchy of Naples,
9)Duchy of Calabria (or Bruttium),
10)Duchy of Liguria (on the north-west bank; in 640 was taken by Lombards).



This is the map of 600AD. Pink – imperial territory, orange – Lombard’s territory. Lucania and Calabria were separated for a short time. On the next map you will see that they were united under one name- Calabria.

Besides the Exarchate of Ravenna, Sicily also belonged to Byzantine, but it formed a separate government. Corsica and Sardinia, while they remained Byzantine, belonged to the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa.

 Because of theological differences (iconoclasm) with the church of the East, popes of the West had big problems with the imperial power, which support the eastern church. In 715-16 pope Gregory II (715-31) excommunicated emperor Leo III, who tried to impose iconoclasm in Italy by an imperial edict.  Pope Zacharias (741–52) even  didn’t seek confirmation of his election from the Byzantine emperor any longer. That results in popular uprising directed at the exarch of Ravenna, the emperor’s viceroy in Italy.

In 751 using the problems the papacy had with the empire, Lombards took the Exarchate of Ravenna.  Pope Stephen II appealed to the ruler of Franks Pepin the Short for help to return the territories of the Exarchate in exchange for recognition him as king of Franks. Pepin proclaimed himself as a king, and later (754, 756) had invaded Italy against the Lombards from whom he wrested the exarchate of Ravenna and other cities


In 756 Pepin the Short gave the pope temporal jurisdiction over Rome and surrounding areas, thus creating the Papal States. Three rulers of: 1) Ravenna, 2) Duchy of Pentapolis, 3) Duchy of Perugia (Perusia), whose land was included in the Church property, lost their positions.



When Charlemagne - the son of Pepin the Short,  came to power after death of his  brother Carloman, with whom he shared in the succession to his father’s kingdom, he disinherited his sons, who fled with their mother to the king of the Lombards. When in 772 Lombards conquered part of the papal lands and attempted to force Pope Adrian I to recognize Carloman’s sons, Charlemagne intervened (773) on the side of the pope and defeated the Lombards. He confirmed the papacy in possession of Ravenna, Pentapolis and Perugia the so-called Donation of Pepin.

The coronation (in 800) at Rome of Charlemagne as emperor of the West ended all question of Byzantine authority over Rome, but it also inaugurated an era characterized by the ambiguous relationship between the emperors and the popes. That era was punctuated by visits to the city by the German kings, to be crowned emperor or to secure the election of a pope to their liking or to impose their will on the pope.

10 horns were not 10 tribes which divided the western empire, they were the 10 people, who divided power over the western empire.

2) papacy didn’t receive power in 538 as Adventist teach, it received the juridical right for the power in 606 as we will see further.

3) When papacy appeared in 606 (apparition of the little horn) the western Empire was divided into 10 regions (from 580-90) with 10 rulers (10 horns). In 756 three regions: Ravenna, Pentapolis and Perugia, were added to Duchy of Rome – the Roman Church. Just in that time the church got the power to recognize (Pepin the Short- Carolingians) or reject (Merovingian dynasty) emperors (i.e. the little horn received eyes and mouth  to dictate its conditions).

to the prophecy

It is said about little horn:  he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time (360+720+180= 1260 years/ days Rev.12:6). But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end(7:25,26).

The only goal of this lesson is to find out the time of the power of the little horn -Vatican.  Adventist teach, that 1260 years of the little horn power lasted from 538AD to 1798AD.

In 1798 “French armies under Gen. Louis Alexandre Berthier marched on Rome, … and demanded that Pius [VI] renounce his temporal [civil] sovereignty. At his refusal the pope was taken prisoner and held first at Siena and ultimately at Valence, France, where he died." (Infopedia, Funk and Wagnalls Encyclopedia on CD-ROM. Copyright 1996 by Soft Key)   

1260 years earlier, in AD. 538, the Ostrogoths were defeated in their attempt to take the city of Rome, Rome was freed, and pope in Rome got the power in the Western Roman Empire (Thomas Hodgkin, Italy and Her Invaders, 2nd ed. Oxford Clrendon Press, 1885-1889; 4:250).

There 4 points made by Adventists are wrong:
1 – as it was shown, the time in the prophecy can not be counted according to the solar calendar, it has to be counted as the prophetical time, that is why it is wrong to count down 1260 solar years from the historical date. We need to transform the prophetical time into the solar one.

The three other points contain historical mistakes.

1)When in 538AD emperor Justinian reconquered the city of Rome from the Ostrogoths Vatican hadn’t gain a power. The emperor tried to conquer the western provinces from the Germanic tribes in order to expand the borders of the Byzantine empire. Justinian viewed himself as the new Constantine I. He believed in a Mediterranean-wide Christian order politically, religiously and economically united under a single Christian emperor. The Church was an instrument in the hands of the emperor, and even Justinian gave the church a lot of his concern, he never gave a sovereign independent authority to it.  A pope still remained under submission of the emperor.

2). As we shall see further, when in 1798 the French general put the Roman pope into the prison, he didn't destroy the papacy. We need to remember, that the little horn represents not just a certain individual, but the system - papacy, and it peacefully existed  more than 50 years after Pius VI was taken to the prison.

 3) The Bible says: I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them Until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to favor of the saints of the most High” (Dan.7:21).  The battle with the saints is the inquisition which was carried on by the Roman Catholic church. During it millions non believers along with true believers who rejected prayers   to icons, to saints, Mary and ctr. were killed. The inquisition in Spain, where it was especially long, was finished completely only in 1834 ( Vatican could not lose its authority in 1798 and continue the inquisition till 1834. 

Besides historical discrepancies, there are also a theological roughness. So, Daniel told about a little horn, that « he shall be broken without hand» (8:25). Taking the pope by Napoleon  to the prison in 1798 AD is “by hand”.

Thus, 1798 AD as the end of the power of the little horn-Vatican- is the wrong date.

                         So when did Vatican lose its power?

In 1797 Napoleon Bonaparte imposed the Treaty of Tolentino on the pope Pius VI. By its terms the papacy was forced to cede part of the Papal States to a puppet republic Napoleon had organized in Northern Italy. The French authorities ordered Pius VI to leave the Vatican. He was escorted to Sienna in 1798, where he died in 1799. The papal conclave eventually gathered on the island of San Grigorio Maggiore, where after three months it elected cardinal Chiaramonte who took the name of Pius VII. He returned to Rome in July 1800.

In Rome Pope Pius VII stiffened against Napoleon. In 1809 Napoleon annexed the Papal States to his empire, arrested the pope, and transported him to Savona. Eventually the pope remained a prisoner until after Napoleon’s defeat at Leipzig in the Battle of Nations in 1813. By his resistance to Napoleon Pius VII had won the good will and admiration of the European powers, and at the Congress of Vienna (1814) he received back all the Papal States.

Hence from 1798 to 1809 the papacy was in danger to lose its territory, in 1809 it lost the territory and after 1813 the papacy took its territory back. The power of Vatican shook a little but still remained strong.

 The papacy was caught up in the movement for Italian unification after 1848 and ultimately lost its temporal sovereignty. In the time of the Revolution of 1848 extremists seized control of Rome, denounced the pope Pius IX as a traitor to his country, stabbed to death his prime minister and forced the pope to flee in disguise. 9 February 1849 a democratic republic abolished the temporal (political) power of the pope.

The final step in Italian Unification against Austria was the seizure of Rome in 1870, when the papacy lost everything: the Papal States with the capital of Rome being in the possession of the papacy since 756AD, as a result of National Liberation movement was included in the structure of the Italian kingdom…The “Roman Question” was not settled until 1929. (The data is taken from Collier’s Encyclopedia, “papacy”).

Thus, the real fall of the temporal power of Vatican happened in 1849AD (“without hand” but by the decree) as the result of the movement  for Italian Unification.

1260 prophetic years of the power of Vatican = 1243 years according to the solar calendar (1260x360÷365=1243). 
1849 –1243 = 606.

606 A.D. is as a milestone in the development of the Papacy. In this year Roman Bishop Boniface III obtained the decree from Emperor Phocas  which restated that "the See of Blessed Peter the Apostle should be the head of all the Churches". This ensured that the title of "Universal Bishop" belonged exclusively to the Bishop of Rome, also he gain the title «vicar of Jesus on Earth» and «Pope», which means : “Father”.

Actually similar edicts were three. The first one was issued in  445  on the application of Roman bishop Leo (440-461) by western emperor Valentinian III and eastern emperor Theodosius II. There in the edict it was stated that the Roman pontiff is the Director of all Christendom and the bishops and universal clergy were commanded to obey him as their rule ("Rectortotius Ecclesiae." - D'Aubigné's History, vol. i. p. 42. taken from ).  Owing to the bright personality of bishop Leo the edict was not discussed during his lifetime. However in 476 when  emperor of Western Roman empire Romulus Augustus was forced to abdicate of the throne , and all the power was concentrated on the part of Eastern empire (Constantinople), the church of Constantinople began to apply for its superiority.  Besides that, bishops of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem began to challenge the superiority of Rome also.

In 533 emperor Justinian I, wishing to unite the empire under the one church by avoiding some conflicts, had decided  not to change a current position of the Roman church in Christendom. He issued the letter, which had all importance of a decree. There he again confirmed the superiority of Rome.

However the Byzantian emperor Maurice (582-602) decided that it is time for the church of Constantinople to be the chief of all churches.  And in 588  Constantinopolitan synod rejected the decree of Roman emperor Justinian I given in 533 AD and granted   the title of "ecumenical" or "universal bishop" to patriarch of Constantinople John IV the Faster.  John IV didn’t use this title.

In 595 John died and the patriarch of Constantinople became Cyriacus (595-606), who had accepted the title. Pontiff of Rome Gregory I (590-604) was angry, he wrote to the Emperor Maurice (582 - 602) and asked for the title "universal bishop" to be stripped from the bishop of Constantinople, but Maurice refused.

When in 602 AD Maurice was murdered by Phocas, who became the next emperor. Gregory I got a hope that new emperor will be much more easy to deal with and in 603AD he  sent Boniface, deacon, as his  nuncio to the court of Constantinople with the goal to convince the new emperor that the title has to belong only to the Church of Rome. Boniface got the emperor’s attention and even became his associate.

In 604AD Gregory I died and Sabinian became the bishop of Rome. On the death of Sabinian in February 606, Boniface was elected as his successor – Boniface III. At that time Boniface was still in Constantinople. There, having convinced Phocas that he will take care that all the church will pray for emperor's well beeing, if Phocas will make him the chief of all churches Boniface in the same 606 AD received the long-awaited decree.

However his return from Constantinople to Rome was delayed by a year, that is why in many documents his episcopacy was stated from 607, when he began his work as bishop of Rome. The decree of Phocas not only had stopped all attempts of other churches to establish their leadership, but also had stopped attempts of all subsequent emperors to take away from the Roman church its authority.

Thus, 1260 years of the little horn (1243 solar years) begun in 606AD when the papacy received temporal authority, and had been ended in 1849 when the papacy lost its political power.



additional material: 

map of Europe after death of Charlemagne
    map 600AD  

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